# Roman Numbers - Rules, Chart | What Are Roman Numbers?

When you think about numbers at present, the first thing that pops in your head is the decimal system we utilize everyday. This method, however, is not the single way to represent numericals. There are many approaches utilized by different cultures around the world that use all types of symbols. Classified among many one of the method is Roman numbers.

Given that ancient Rome, Roman numerals have been a way of expressing numbers using a combination of characters from the Latin alphabet. It existed during the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the extend it is still learned in school, that is possibly why you have stumbled upon this blog.

Now, we are going to look at Roman numbers, definition, how they function, and how to transform Roman numerals to regular numbers.

## What Are Roman Numbers?

First, let's check a quick look at the history of Roman numbers. Roman numericals were first used by the ancient Romans, as you might have guessed from the name. They were employed in multiple aspects of the Roman world, including trade, architecture, and even warfare.

Presently, its extensive use is primarily attributed to artistic reasons. You might have observed Roman numbers as hour marks on a clock, copyright dates, page numbering, chapter numbers, or in film sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part III).

The Roman number system includes numericals utilizing a blend of characters from the Latin alphabet. Characters are mixed to make groups that represent numericals. Seven characters, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, depicts the numbers 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, individually. You can then blend these numbers to represent any value in the numerical system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

While the decimal system is based on the ideas of place value, Roman numerals are based on additive and subtractive principles. This means that a Roman numeral's numeric values are established on the sum of the values of its particular parts. One more important difference is that the decimal approach is founded on the number 10. In contrast, Roman numerals are founded on the numericals 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's check out a few hands-on examples of Roman numerals.

The electronic game street fighter IV was released in arcades as early as 2008. If we take a look at the numericals in the name, we see it has a V in it. This is because the number 5 in Roman numerals is represented by the alphabet V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Hence, we grasp that this is the 4th entry in the series employing the properties we will speak on subsequently in the article.

The movie Star Wars Episode VI was the latest entry in the original trilogy. Looking at the value described, it comprises a V followed by an I. Therefore, we will add a 1 to the value of V, that is 5, comprehending this Star Wars film is the 6th entry in the franchise.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numbers, it is crucial to know the numeric value of all the letters. To help make this operation easy, here is a chart with all Latin alphabets with assigned numeric values.

Decimal Number | Roman Numeral |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XIII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

25 | XXV |

26 | XXVI |

27 | XXVII |

28 | XXVIII |

29 | XXIX |

30 | XXX |

31 | XXXI |

32 | XXXII |

33 | XXXIII |

34 | XXXIV |

35 | XXXV |

36 | XXXVI |

37 | XXXVII |

38 | XXXVIII |

39 | XXXIX |

40 | XL |

41 | XLI |

42 | XLII |

43 | XLIII |

44 | XLIV |

45 | XLV |

46 | XLVI |

47 | XLVII |

48 | XLVIII |

49 | XLIX |

50 | L |

51 | LI |

52 | LII |

53 | LIII |

54 | LIV |

55 | LV |

56 | LVI |

57 | LVII |

58 | LVIII |

59 | LIX |

60 | LX |

61 | LXI |

62 | LXII |

63 | LXIII |

64 | LXIV |

65 | LXV |

66 | LXVI |

67 | LXVII |

68 | LXVIII |

69 | LXIX |

70 | LXX |

71 | LXXI |

72 | LXXII |

73 | LXXIII |

74 | LXXIV |

75 | LXXV |

76 | LXXVI |

77 | LXXVII |

78 | LXXVIII |

79 | LXXIX |

80 | LXXX |

81 | LXXXI |

82 | LXXXII |

83 | LXXXIII |

84 | LXXXIV |

85 | LXXXV |

86 | LXXXVI |

87 | LXXXVII |

88 | LXXXVIII |

89 | LXXXIX |

90 | XC |

91 | XCI |

92 | XCII |

93 | XCIII |

94 | XCIV |

95 | XCV |

96 | XCVI |

97 | XCVII |

98 | XCVIII |

99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

## How to Transform from Roman Numbers to Regular Numbers

Now that we have the handy table of Roman numbers, we can use that information to change numericals back and forth promptly. Following these steps, you will convert these values any time you want.

### Steps to Convert Roman numerals to Regular Numericals

To transform Roman numbers to decimal numericals, we will use the cumulative and subtractive principles we went through.

Start at the leftmost Roman numeral in the group.

If the Roman number to its right is lesser in value, then sum the two values.

If the Roman number to its right is greater in value, subtract the Roman number on the right out of the Roman numbers to its left.

All you should do now is repeat this process until you arrive at the end of the Roman number group.

Let's take a look how you can transform Roman numerals with a few examples.

### Example 1

Take a look at the Roman numeral LXXVI.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numeral, which is L or 50.

The Roman numeral to its right is X or 10. Because 10 is lesser than 50, we add the both values and get 60.

The Roman number to the right of X is X again. We sum 10 to 60 and the result is 70.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is V or 5. Considering 5 is less than 70, we sum the two values and get 75.

The Roman number to the right of V is I or 1. Because 1 is less than 75, we add the both values and we find 76.

We stop here at the end of the Roman number group. Therefore, the Roman numeral LXXVI is as same as the regular number 76.

### Example 2

Study the Roman number MCMIII.

Begin with the leftmost Roman number, that is M or 1000.

The Roman number to its right is C or 100. Considering 100 is less than 1000, and it is ensued by an M, this value means 900.

The Roman numeral to the right of M is I or 1. Considering 1 is less than 1900, we add the both values and get 1901.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We add 1 to 1901 and we find 1902.

The Roman numeral to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1902 and we find 1903.

Since we have arrived the end of the Roman number group, we halt here with our answer. So, the Roman number MCMIII is as same as the regular number 1903.

With this information and a little practice, you will convert Roman numerals to decimal numbers like a pro!

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